What are the different types of cancer?

Cancer can be termed as group of diseases that occur when cells in the body grow uncontrollably. The cell division will be unregulated which leads to the formation of tumours. These tumour cells may spread to other parts of the body via lymphatic system or through blood flow. Cancer cells can be benign or malignant. Benign tumours do not invade other parts of the body nor do they cause any harm to any organs. In recent times several new types of cancers are being detected with the help of growing technology. As of now there are around 200 cancers that can invade humans and destroy them.


General Causes & Symptoms

Cancer is a complex disease. It becomes very difficult to exactly pin point the reason. Several reasons like usage of tobacco, obesity, pollution, certain infections, radiation may lead to the formation of cancers.

  • Usually there will be severe weight loss accompanied by frequent fever and weakness. Many times there will not be any visible signs in the initial stages.
  • Weakness is one of the most common symptoms of all cancers. Weakness may be experienced in the initial stages or in the later stages, depending on the cancer type. Most of the cancer patients will be anemic if the cancer affects the digestive system.
  • Weight loss will be sudden and appetite may be present or absent. If there is a weight loss of around 10 pounds without any reason, the person should see a doctor immediately.
  • In all types of cancers because it affects the immune system, the person experiences frequent bouts of fever.
  • In cancers like bone cancer and testicular cancer, pain will be seen in early stages. In case of brain tumour, there will be frequent headaches. For colon, ovary or rectum cancer, back pain may be seen. Usually pain persists in cancers that have started spreading, which is called metastasized.
  • Skin may become dark, itching may persist or skin may be reddened.

These are only few symptoms that may be associated with cancer. There may be several other symptoms that are unique to the cancer.


Types of Cancer

Cancers that originate in the brain and spinal cord tissues are known as Central nervous System Cancers. If cancer cells affect the immune system of the body, they are termed as Lymphoma and myeloma. Leukamia is the cancer that erupts in the tissues that are related to the blood formation like bone marrow. Unregulated blood cells will be produced and invade the blood stream. The cancer that occurs in the tissues that cover the internal organs and skin is called Carcinoma.


Cancer can invade any part of the body. But depending on the incidence of occurrence they can be broadly divided as:

Skin cancer: It is one of the most common cancers spread especially in the western world. Many young people are becoming victims to this stubborn disease. Exposure to UV rays of sun is the main cause for skin cancers.


Blood Cancer: The blood stream consists of white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets. Bone marrow creates these cells. If cancer affects the bone marrow, it may lead to blood cancer called leukemia or lymphoma.


Bone cancer: Bone cancer predominantly affects teenagers and children. Most common bone cancers can be classified into two categories: osteosarcoma and Ewing’s Sarcoma.


Brain Cancer: Brain cancer can affect adults as well as children. There are various types of brain cancer. They include: Brain stem Glioma, Cerebellar Astrocytoma, Ependymoma, Medullobalstoma, Cerebral Astrocytoma, Spratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal tumour and Visual Pathaway and Hypthalamic Glioma affect children, in adults it is known as adult brain tumour.


Breast Cancer: It originates in the tissues of breast, most commonly from the inner lining of milk ducts (known as ductal carcinomas) or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk (known as lobular carcinomas).


Stomach related cancers: As the digestive system starts from esophagus and ends with anus, any part in this digestive system can be affected by cancer cells. Symptoms may differ from organ to organ. Cancer may invade digestive organs like stomach, small instestine, pancreas, rectum, liver, gall bladder, esophagus, colon, bile duct and anus.


Endocrine cancers: Endocrine system regulates the glandular and hormonal activity in the body. Of all the cancers that affect the endocrine system, thyroid cancer is the most common one. This type of cancer is considered less dangerous.


Eye cancers: Eyes are also susceptible to cancer. Eye cancer is seen in adults and children. Intraocular Melanoma and Retinoblastoma are the most common eye cancers.


Genitourinary cancers: Cancer when invade the male genitalia or urinary tract in males, they are termed as Genitourinary cancers. Common cancer in this category are related to bladder, kidney, penile, prostrate, testicular and urethra.


Gynecologic cancers: When female reproductive organs are diagonised with cancer, they are termed as gynecologic cancers. They can be classified into cancers of: cervical, endometrial, uterine, ovarian,vaginal and vulvuar cancers.


Neck and head cancers: Cancers in these regions affect the moist mucosal surfaces like nose, throat and mouth. Predominant reason for such cancer is smoking tobacco. Cancer in these regions can be termed as salivary gland cancer, parathyroid cancer, oropharyngeal cancer, lip and oral cancer, laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers.


Respiratory organs cancers: Respiratory organs get affected. They are known as Thymoma and Thymic Carcinoma, Malignant Mesothelioma and Lung Cancer.


As science is advancing with latest innovations and discoveries, more and more diseases are being discovered. But man is not able to fight with cancer cells. When he succeeds in combating cancer cells, it will be a true victory for mankind.

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