Invention Story of Computer

The era for modern age computing is said to be started in the year 1837 when Charles Babbage invented first programmable computer to perform mathematical calculations. Later digital computer known as ENIAC have evolved in 1948 that was very large in size and used vacuum tubes. In around 1960’s vacuum tubes was replaced with semiconductors transistor and computers with these semiconductors are less expensive, consume low electricity and faster.  In 70’s integrated circuits was originated that lead to innovation of microprocessor by Intel and computers with IC’s were highly reliable, fastest and less pricey. Finally, in 1980’s home based personal computer (PC’s) progressed.     

There are many other inventions like calculators performing mathematical operations and punch card machine for tabulating data led for discovery of computer. Charles Babbage has invented analytical engine in 1837 that was utilized in computational science. This engine was designed completely in 1933 which is a fusion of programmable and calculation giving rise to a computer used for multiple purposes. Machine that could process 15-digit numbers and perform calculations for fourth order differences was endorsed by George Scheutz and Edward. One of the firms that made used of punch cards in computers to calculate 1890 census was US Census Bureau and this machine was developed by Herman Hollerith. Later this man in coordination with opponents in year 1911 fused and turned to corporation International Business Machines IBM which led for creation of many different computers till date.



Charles Babbage with inspiration of desktop calculators developed by Thomas of Colmar had led his interest for development of computers. In the year 1812, he recognized that many long calculations required to create mathematical tables, were just a mere sequence of expected actions that were continually repeated. From this evaluation, he assumed that, it should be achievable to do these calculations automatically. Later, he started to design an automatic mechanical calculating machine that he termed as difference engine.  In the year1823, he initiated the invention of a difference engine with the financial support of British government. It was mainly designed to be completely automotive and was commanded by a fixed tutoring program, printing off the resulting tables. Even though it had limited flexibility and applicability, the difference engine was a huge advance in those days. Babbage soon developed an analytical engine, also termed as “Difference Engine No. 2” that replaced the predecessor in a quick time.


In the year 1890, with computers, the punch cards were first successfully utilized by Herman Hollerith (left) and James Powers, who worked for the US Census Bureau.   They developed some devices that could read the data punched into the cards automatically without human assistance. Through developing these devices, several improvements were attained like work flow improved; reading errors were decreased dramatically and mainly stacks of punched cards could be utilized as easily reach accessible memory of maximum size. These benefits were practically proved in some commercial firms such as IBM, Remington, and Burroughs etc.

The innovation of this digital computer rose by need of this equipment in Wars for making their task done at high speed rates. In year 1942 this was developed by John Eckert with his assistances and named as ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator And Calculator) used by military for trajectory of weapons using tables. The engine of this digital computer was developed using 1800 vacuum tubes that can accept numerical word of size 10decimal digits and perform multiplication of two numbers at speed of 300 per second. This device physically occupied 18800 square feet and consumes electricity of 180,000 watts. This electronic digital computer is 1000 times faster than that of previous developments as, it is embedded with programs made up of instructions to function and control flow of data. Hence, with its features this computer was considered as first high speed electronic digital computer in 1946.

Looking at the features of the digital electronic computer there are propositions to build fastest computers with high speed rates that functions many other tasks. Von Neumann based on concept of stored-program technique led future generation computers that adapt relatively more high speed of processing than previous electronic digital computer. This person to meet the 1000 operations per second and store instructions of program along with data has introduced conditional control transfer machine instruction. With assembly of this machine instruction besides program for storages in separate units collectively fused to a general purpose computer that has memory. This led for advancement of modern programmed electronic computer in 1947 along with random access memory (RAM). RAM capacity is 1000 word at accessibility of 0.5 Greek milliseconds. These computers are considered as first generation modern computers and had more reliability that was utilized for around next 12 years.


The development of new digital computers was taken place through the invention of magnetic core memory, transistor circuits. Capacity of RAM was increased here to 64,000 words and access rate to 3 milliseconds but was highly expensive. Hence, to make cheaper and useful for many organizations magnetic tapes, disks and time shared processors were created. Later in 60’s medium sized computers with CPU that have minimum arithmetic operations with low programming. These obstacles were eradicated by developing programming language for applications along with techniques like large scale integration. On basis of these techniques invention of very large scale integration took place. This innovation in 80’s introduced successful minicomputers that are used as personal computers.